Brain Training for Silver Gamers: Effects of Age and Game Form on Effectiveness, Efficiency, Self-Assessment, and Gameplay Experience.

by Lennart E Nacke, Anne Nacke, Craig A Lindley
Abstract:
In recent years, an aging demographic majority in the Western world has come to the attention of the game industry. The recently released “brain-training” games target this population, and research investigating gameplay experience of the elderly using this game form is lacking. This study employs a 2 x 2 mixed factorial design (age group: young and old x game form: paper and Nintendo DS) to investigate effects of age and game form on usability, self-assessment, and gameplay experience in a supervised field study. Effectiveness was evaluated in task completion time, efficiency as error rate, together with self-assessment measures (arousal, pleasure, dominance) and game experience (challenge, flow, competence, tension, positive and negative affect). Results indicate players, regardless of age, are more effective and efficient using pen-and-paper than using a Nintendo DS console. However, the game is more arousing and induces a heightened sense of flow in digital form for gamers of all ages. Logic problem-solving challenges within digital games may be associated with positive feelings for the elderly but with negative feelings for the young. Thus, digital logic-training games may provide positive gameplay experience for an aging Western civilization.
Reference:
Brain Training for Silver Gamers: Effects of Age and Game Form on Effectiveness, Efficiency, Self-Assessment, and Gameplay Experience. (Lennart E Nacke, Anne Nacke, Craig A Lindley), Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor New Rochelle, NY 10801 USA, volume 12, 2009.
Bibtex Entry:
@article{NackeEtAl2009a,
abstract = {In recent years, an aging demographic majority in the Western world has come to the attention of the game industry. The recently released "brain-training" games target this population, and research investigating gameplay experience of the elderly using this game form is lacking. This study employs a 2 x 2 mixed factorial design (age group: young and old x game form: paper and Nintendo DS) to investigate effects of age and game form on usability, self-assessment, and gameplay experience in a supervised field study. Effectiveness was evaluated in task completion time, efficiency as error rate, together with self-assessment measures (arousal, pleasure, dominance) and game experience (challenge, flow, competence, tension, positive and negative affect). Results indicate players, regardless of age, are more effective and efficient using pen-and-paper than using a Nintendo DS console. However, the game is more arousing and induces a heightened sense of flow in digital form for gamers of all ages. Logic problem-solving challenges within digital games may be associated with positive feelings for the elderly but with negative feelings for the young. Thus, digital logic-training games may provide positive gameplay experience for an aging Western civilization.},
author = {Nacke, Lennart E and Nacke, Anne and Lindley, Craig A},
doi = {10.1089/cpb.2009.0013},
issn = {1557-8364},
journal = {CyberPsychology & Behavior},
keywords = {80 and over,Adaptation,Adolescent,Adult,Aged,Aging,Aging: psychology,Cognition,Consumer Satisfaction,Female,Humans,Male,Play and Playthings,Play and Playthings: psychology,Problem Solving,Psychological,Self Assessment (Psychology),Video Games,Video Games: classification,Video Games: psychology,Young Adult,arousal,assessibility,brain,effects,eldergames,elderly,enjoyment,geq,mannequin,mental,motivation,performance,psychology,research,survey,usability,ux},
language = {en},
mendeley-tags = {arousal,assessibility,brain,effects,eldergames,elderly,enjoyment,geq,mannequin,mental,motivation,performance,psychology,research,survey,usability,ux},
month = oct,
number = {5},
pages = {493--499},
pmid = {19772440},
publisher = {Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor New Rochelle, NY 10801 USA},
title = {{Brain Training for Silver Gamers: Effects of Age and Game Form on Effectiveness, Efficiency, Self-Assessment, and Gameplay Experience.}},
type = {Journal article},
url = {http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/cpb.2009.0013},
volume = {12},
year = {2009}
}

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