Publications

“Happiness comes when your work and words are of benefit to yourself and others.” — Buddha

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Stones on Beach

Select Academic Publications

2014

Refereed Journal Articles

[1] BrainHex: A Neurobiological Gamer Typology Survey (Lennart E Nacke, Chris Bateman, Regan L Mandryk), In Entertainment Computing, Elsevier, volume 5, 2014. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]

Refereed Conference Articles

[2] Fuzzy Affective Player Models: A Physiology-Based Hierarchical Clustering Method (Pedro A Nogueira, Rúben Aguiar, Rui A Rodrigues, Eugénio C Oliveira, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of AIIDE 2014, AAAI, 2014. [bibtex] [pdf]
[3] Developing Iconic and Semi-Iconic Game Controllers (Lennart E Nacke, João P Costa, Dennis L Kappen, James Robb, Daniel Buckstein), In Proceedings of CHI PLAY 2014, ACM, 2014. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[4] Unified Visualization of Quantitative and Qualitative Playtesting Data (Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Günter Wallner, Graham McAllister, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of CHI EA 2014, ACM, 2014. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[5] Understanding Expectations with Multiple Controllers in an Augmented Reality Videogame (Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Nathan Gale, João P Costa, Lennart E Nacke, Daniel Johnson), In Proceedings of CHI PLAY 2014, ACM, 2014. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[6] Engaged by Boos and Cheers: The Effect of Co-Located Game Audiences on Social Player Experience (Dennis L Kappen, Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Jens Johannsmeier, Daniel Buckstein, James Robb, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of CHI PLAY 2014, ACM, 2014. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[7] The Edge of Glory: The Relationship Between Metacritic Scores and Player Experience (Daniel Johnson, Christopher Watling, John Gardner, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of CHI PLAY 2014, ACM, 2014. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]

Refereed Workshop Papers

[8] Player Experience: Mixed Methods and Reporting Results (Veronica Zammitto, Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Ian J Livingston, Marina Kobayashi, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of CHI EA 2014, 2014. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi] [cites]
[9] Games and Entertainment Community SIG: Reaching Beyond CHI (Lennart E Nacke, Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Magy Seif El-Nasr, Heather W Desurvire, Regina Bernhaupt), In Proceedings of CHI EA 2014, ACM, 2014. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]

2013

Refereed Book Chapters

[10] An Introduction to Physiological Player Metrics for Evaluating Games (Lennart E Nacke), Chapter in Game Analytics - Maximizing the Value of Player Data, Springer London, 2013. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]

Refereed Journal Articles

[11] The Effect of Sound on Visual Fidelity Perception in Stereoscopic 3-D (David Rojas, Bill Kapralos, Andrew Hogue, Karen Collins, Lennart E Nacke, Sayra Cristancho, Cristina Conati, Adam Dubrowski), In IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, IEEE, volume 43, 2013. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]

Refereed Conference Articles

[12] An Introduction to EEG Analysis Techniques and Brain-Computer Interfaces for Games User Researchers (Rina R Wehbe, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of DiGRA 2013, DiGRA, 2013. [bibtex] [pdf]
[13] EEG-Based Assessment of Video and In-Game Learning (Rina R Wehbe, Dennis L Kappen, David Rojas, Matthias Klauser, Bill Kapralos, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of CHI EA 2013, ACM, 2013. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[14] A Regression-Based Method for Lightweight Emotional State Detection in Interactive Environments (Pedro A Nogueira, Rui A Rodrigues, Eugénio Oliveira, Lennart E Nacke), In , Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2013. [bibtex] [pdf]
[15] A Hybrid Approach at Emotional State Detection: Merging Theoretical Models of Emotion with Data-Driven Statistical Classifiers (Pedro A Nogueira, Rui A Rodrigues, Eugénio Oliveira, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of IEEE/WIC/ACM Conference on Web Intelligence 2013, IEEE, volume 2, 2013. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[16] Guided Emotional State Regulation: Understanding and Shaping Players' Affective Experiences in Digital Games (Pedro A Nogueira, Rui A Rodrigues, Eugénio C Oliveira, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of AIIDE 2009, 2013. [bibtex] [pdf]
[17] How Does It Play Better? Exploring User Testing and Biometric Storyboards in Games User Research (Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Lennart E Nacke, John Gregory, Nick Collins, Geraldine Fitzpatrick), In , ACM, 2013. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[18] The Kaleidoscope of Effective Gamification: Deconstructing Gamification in Business Applications (Dennis L Kappen, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of Gamification 2013, ACM, 2013. [bibtex] [pdf]
[19] Exploring Social Interaction in Co-Located Multiplayer Games (Dennis L Kappen, John Gregory, Daniel Stepchenko, Rina R Wehbe, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of CHI EA 2013, ACM, 2013. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[20] Deconstructing ‘Gamified’ Task-Management Applications (Dennis L Kappen, Jens Johannsmeier, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of Gamification 2013, ACM, 2013. [bibtex] [pdf]
[21] Assessing User Preference of Video Game Controller Button Settings (William Ellick, Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Sharon Wood, Duncan Smith, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of CHI EA 2013, ACM, 2013. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[22] Time’s Up: Studying Leaderboards for Engaging Punctual Behaviour (João P Costa, Rina R Wehbe, James Robb, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of Gamification 2013, ACM, 2013. [bibtex] [pdf]

Refereed Workshop Papers

[23] Games User Research: Practice, Methods, and Applications (Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Veronica Zammitto, Joerg Niesenhaus, Mirweis Sangin, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of CHI EA 2013, ACM, 2013. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[24] Designing Gamification: Creating Gameful and Playful Experiences (Sebastian Deterding, Staffan L Björk, Lennart E Nacke, Dan Dixon, Elizabeth Lawley), In Proceedings of CHI EA 2013, ACM, 2013. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[25] Designing and Evaluating Sociability in Online Video Games (Georgios Christou, Effie Law, David Geerts, Lennart E Nacke, Panayiotis Zaphiris), In Proceedings of CHI EA 2013, 2013. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]

2012

Refereed Journal Articles

[26] Contextual Influences on Mobile Player Experience--A Game User Experience Model (Stephan Engl, Lennart E Nacke), In Entertainment Computing, Elsevier, volume 4, 2012. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]

Refereed Conference Articles

[27] Biometric Storyboards: Visualising Game User Research Data (Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Lennart E Nacke, Geraldine Fitzpatrick, Gareth White, Graham McAllister, Nick Collins), In Proceedings of CHI EA 2012, ACM, 2012. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[28] I'm Just Here to Play Games: Social Dynamics and Sociality in an Online Game Site (Gregor McEwan, Carl Gutwin, Regan L Mandryk, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of ACM CSCW 2012, ACM, 2012. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[29] Feedback-Based Gameplay Metrics: Measuring Player Experience via Automatic Visual Analysis (Raphaël Marczak, Jasper van Vught, Gareth Schott, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of ACM IE 2012, ACM, 2012. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[30] Full-Body Motion-Based Game Interaction for Older Adults (Kathrin M Gerling, Ian J Livingston, Lennart E Nacke, Regan L Mandryk), In Proceedings of SIGCHI 2012, ACM, 2012. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[31] Mixed Reality Games (Elizabeth M Bonsignore, Derek L Hansen, Zachary O Toups, Lennart E Nacke, Anastasia Salter, Wayne Lutters), In Proceedings of ACM CSCW 2012, ACM, 2012. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]

Refereed Workshop Papers

[32] Game User Research (Magy Seif El-Nasr, Heather W Desurvire, Lennart E Nacke, Anders Drachen, Licia Calvi, Katherine Isbister, Regina Bernhaupt), In Proceedings of CHI EA 2012, ACM, 2012. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[33] Flow in Games: Proposing a Flow Experience Model (Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of the Workshop on Conceptualising, Operationalising and Measuring the Player Experience in Videogames at Fun and Games 2012, ACM, 2012. [bibtex] [pdf]

Other Publications

[34] Analysing Social Metrics in an Online Game Site (Gregor McEwan, Carl Gutwin, Regan L Mandryk, Lennart E Nacke), 2012. [bibtex] [pdf]
[35] Motion-Based Game Design for Older Adults (Kathrin M Gerling, Ian J Livingston, Lennart E Nacke, Regan L Mandryk), 2012. [bibtex] [pdf]

2011

Refereed Book Chapters

[36] Player-Game Interaction Through Affective Sound (Lennart E Nacke, Mark Grimshaw), Chapter in , IGI Global, 2011. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]

Refereed Journal Articles

[37] Developing a Triangulation System for Digital Game Events, Observational Video, and Psychophysiological Data to Study Emotional Responses to a Virtual Character (J Matias Kivikangas, Lennart E Nacke, Niklas Ravaja), In Entertainment Computing, Elsevier, volume 2, 2011. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[38] LAIF: A Logging and Interaction Framework for Gaze-Based Interfaces in Virtual Entertainment Environments (Lennart E Nacke, Sophie Stellmach, Dennis Sasse, Joerg Niesenhaus, Raimund Dachselt), In Entertainment Computing, Elsevier, volume 2, 2011. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]

Refereed Conference Articles

[39] BrainHex: Preliminary Results from a Neurobiological Gamer Typology Survey (Lennart E Nacke, Chris Bateman, Regan L Mandryk), In Entertainment Computing--ICEC 2011, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[40] Accessible Games SIG (Arnold Lund, Annuska Perkins, Sri Kurniawan, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of CHI EA 2011, ACM, 2011. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[41] Influencing Experience: the Effects of Reading Game Reviews on Player Experience (Ian J Livingston, Lennart E Nacke, Regan L Mandryk), In Entertainment Computing - ICEC 2011, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[42] The Impact of Negative Game Reviews and User Comments on Player Experience (Ian J Livingston, Lennart E Nacke, Regan L Mandryk), In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2011, ACM, 2011. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[43] From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining Gamification (Sebastian Deterding, Dan Dixon, Rilla Khaled, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of MindTrek 2011, ACM, 2011. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[44] Player Typology in Theory and Practice (Chris Bateman, Rebecca Lowenhaupt, Lennart E Nacke), In , 2011. [bibtex] [pdf]
[45] Biofeedback Game Design: Using Direct and Indirect Physiological Control to Enhance Game Interaction (Lennart E Nacke, Michael Kalyn, Calvin Lough, Regan L Mandryk), In Proceedings of CHI 2011, ACM, 2011. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[46] Calibration Games : Making Calibration Tasks Enjoyable by Adding Motivating Game Elements (David R Flatla, Carl Gutwin, Lennart E Nacke, Scott Bateman, Regan L Mandryk), In Proceedings of ACM UIST 2011, ACM, 2011. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]

Refereed Workshop Papers

[47] Towards a Framework of Player Experience Research (Lennart E Nacke, Anders Drachen), In , 2011. [bibtex] [pdf]
[48] Directions in Physiological Game Evaluation and Interaction (Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of the CHI 2011 BBI Workshop, 2011. [bibtex] [pdf]
[49] Brain and Body Interfaces: Designing for Meaningful Interaction (Stephen H Fairclough, Kiel Gilleade, Lennart E Nacke, Regan L Mandryk), In Proceedings of CHI EA 2011, ACM, 2011. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[50] Gamification: Using Game Design Elements in Non-Gaming Contexts (Sebastian Deterding, Miguel Sicart, Lennart E Nacke, Kenton O'Hara, Dan Dixon), In Proceedings of CHI EA 2011, ACM, 2011. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]

2010

Refereed Journal Articles

[51] Electroencephalographic Assessment of Player Experience: A Pilot Study in Affective Ludology (Lennart E Nacke, Sophie Stellmach, Craig A Lindley), volume 42, 2010. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[52] More Than a Feeling: Measurement of Sonic User Experience and Psychophysiology in a First-Person Shooter Game (Lennart E Nacke, Mark N Grimshaw, Craig A Lindley), In Interacting with Computers, volume 22, 2010. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[53] Methods for Evaluating Gameplay Experience in a Serious Gaming Context (Lennart E Nacke, Anders Drachen, Stefan Göbel), In International Journal of Computer Science in Sport, volume 9, 2010. [bibtex] [pdf]

Refereed Conference Articles

[54] Wiimote vs. Controller: Electroencephalographic Measurement of Affective Gameplay Interaction (Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of Futureplay 2010, ACM, 2010. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[55] The Neurobiology of Play (Chris Bateman, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of Futureplay 2010, ACM, 2010. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[56] 3D Attentional Maps: Aggregated Gaze Visualizations in Three-Dimensional Virtual Environments (Sophie Stellmach, Lennart E Nacke, Raimund Dachselt), In Proceedings of AVI 2010, ACM, 2010. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[57] Advanced Gaze Visualizations for Three-Dimensional Virtual Environments (Sophie Stellmach, Lennart E Nacke, Raimund Dachselt), In Eye Tracking Research And Application, ACM, 2010. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[58] Correlation Between Heart Rate, Electrodermal Activity and Player Experience in First-Person Shooter Games (Anders Drachen, Lennart E Nacke, Georgios Yannakakis, Anja Lee Pedersen), In Proceedings of ACM Siggraph 2010 (Richard Wainess, Stephen N. Spencer, eds.), ACM, 2010. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]

Refereed Workshop Papers

[59] Gameplay Experience Testing with Playability and Usability Surveys-An Experimental Pilot Study (Lennart E Nacke, Jonas Schild, Joerg Niesenhaus), In , 2010. [bibtex] [pdf]
[60] Critic-Proofing: Robust Validation Through Data-Mining (Ian J Livingston, Lennart E Nacke, Regan L Mandryk), In , 2010. [bibtex] [pdf]
[61] BioS-Play: Workshop on Multiuser and Social Biosignal Adaptive Games and Playful Applications (Kai Kuikkaniemi, Marko Turpeinen, Hannu J Korhonen, Niklas Ravaja, Guillaume Chanel, Lennart E Nacke), In , ACM, 2010. [bibtex] [pdf]
[62] Playability and Player Experience of Casual Games (Licia Calvi, Stefano Gualeni, Koos Nuijten, Lennart E Nacke, Karolien Poels), In , 2010. [bibtex] [pdf]
[63] Brain, Body and Bytes: Psychophysiological User Interaction (Audrey Girouard, Erin Treacy Solovey, Regan L Mandryk, Desney Tan, Lennart E Nacke, Robert J K Jacob), In Proceedings of CHI EA 2010, ACM, 2010. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]

2009

Refereed Journal Articles

[64] Affective Ludology, Flow and Immersion in a First- Person Shooter: Measurement of Player Experience (Lennart E Nacke, Craig A Lindley), volume 3, 2009. [bibtex] [pdf]
[65] Brain Training for Silver Gamers: Effects of Age and Game Form on Effectiveness, Efficiency, Self-Assessment, and Gameplay Experience. (Lennart E Nacke, Anne Nacke, Craig A Lindley), Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor New Rochelle, NY 10801 USA, volume 12, 2009. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]

Refereed Conference Articles

[66] Playability and Player Experience Research (Lennart E Nacke, Anders Drachen, Kai Kuikkaniemi, Joerg Niesenhaus, Hannu J Korhonen, Wouter M van den Hoogen, Karolien Poels, Wijnand A IJsselsteijn, Yvonne A W de Kort), In Proceedings of DiGRA 2009, DiGRA, 2009. [bibtex] [pdf]
[67] Trends and Techniques in Visual Gaze Analysis (Sophie Stellmach, Lennart E Nacke, Raimund Dachselt, Craig A Lindley), In Proceedings of COGAIN 2009 (A. Villanueva, J. P. Hansen, B. K. Ersbø ll, eds.), The COGAIN Association, 2009. [bibtex] [pdf]
[68] Gameplay Experience in a Gaze Interaction Game (Lennart E Nacke, Sophie Stellmach, Dennis Sasse, Craig A Lindley), In Proceedings of COGAIN 2009 (A. Villanueva, J. P. Hansen, B. K. Ersbø ll, eds.), The COGAIN Association, 2009. [bibtex] [pdf]
[69] From Playability to a Hierarchical Game Usability Model (Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of Future Play 2009, ACM, 2009. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]

Other Publications

[70] Game Experience: Components and Methods of Measurement (Lennart E Nacke), Helsinki Institute for Information Technology (HIIT), 2009. [bibtex] [pdf]
[71] Affective Ludology: Scientific Measurement of User Experience in Interactive Entertainment (Lennart E Nacke), 2009. [bibtex] [pdf]

2008

Refereed Conference Articles

[72] Boredom, Immersion, Flow - A Pilot Study Investigating Player Experience (Lennart E Nacke, Craig A Lindley), In Proceedings of IADIS 2008 (Eleonore ten Thij, ed.), IADIS, 2008. [bibtex] [pdf]
[73] Log Who's Playing: Psychophysiological Game Analysis Made Easy through Event Logging (Lennart E Nacke, Craig A Lindley, Sophie Stellmach), In Proceedings of Fun and Games 2008 (Panos Markopoulos, ed.), Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2008. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[74] Flow and Immersion in First-Person Shooters: Measuring the Player's Gameplay Experience (Lennart E Nacke, Craig A Lindley), In Proceedings of Future Play 2008, ACM, 2008. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[75] Flow and Immersion in First-Person Shooters: Measuring the Player's Gameplay Experience (Lennart E Nacke, Craig A Lindley), In Proceedings of Future Play 2008, ACM, 2008. [bibtex] [pdf] [doi]
[76] Dissecting Play - Investigating the Cognitive and Emotional Motivations and Affects of Computer Gameplay (Craig A Lindley, Lennart E Nacke, Charlotte C Sennersten), In Proceedings of CGames 2008, University of Wolverhampton, 2008. [bibtex] [pdf]
[77] Sound and Immersion in the First-Person Shooter: Mixed Measurement of the Player's Sonic Experience (Mark N Grimshaw, Craig A Lindley, Lennart E Nacke), In Proceedings of Audio Mostly 2008, AudioMostly, 2008. [bibtex] [pdf]

Other Publications

[78] Game Design and Player Emotions (Lennart E Nacke), Helsinki Institute for Information Technology (HIIT), 2008. [bibtex] [pdf]
[79] Future Game Design Biofeedback and Player Experience (Lennart E Nacke), Algoma University, 2008. [bibtex] [pdf]
[80] Focus on Your Players: Psychophysiological Player Experience Logging as a Powerful Tool for Gameplay Analysis (Lennart E Nacke), Aruba Studios, 2008. [bibtex] [pdf]

2007

Refereed Conference Articles

[81] What Does it Mean to Understand Gameplay? (Craig A Lindley, Lennart E Nacke, Charlotte C Sennersten), In Proceedings of LEDA 2007, Aalborg University, 2007. [bibtex] [pdf]

Other Publications

[82] The Fun of Gaming: Measuring the Human Experience of Game Enjoyment (Lennart E Nacke), Aruba Studios, 2007. [bibtex] [pdf]

2006

Refereed Conference Articles

[83] Improving Game Design by Understanding the Gender Differences: The Cognitive Approach (Maizatul H M Yatim, Lennart E Nacke, Maic Masuch), In , Danube University Krems, 2006. [bibtex] [pdf]