“Happiness comes when your work and words are of benefit to yourself and others.” — Buddha
Academic Publications ( 2004-2012 )
For my recent publications, please visit the publications website of my research group.
- Engl, S., Nacke, L.E. (2012) Contextual Influences on Mobile Player Experience – A Game User Experience Model. In Entertainment Computing (to appear) DOI: 10.1016/j.entcom.2012.06.001
User Experience (UX); mobile gaming; evaluation techniques; quantitative methods; field study.
This paper discusses a new model of mobile gameplay experience with a special focus on contextual influences of play in ubiquitous environments, evaluated in several user field studies with mobile games. The experimental results point to two different playing contexts: home and mobile, which were evaluated with a gameplay experience questionnaire.
- Kivikangas, J.M., Nacke, L.E., Ravaja, N. (2011). Developing a triangulation system for digital game events, observational video, and psychophysiological data to study emotional responses to a virtual character. In Entertainment Computing (to appear) DOI: 10.1016/j.entcom.2011.03.006.
Triangulation, psychophysiology, experimental psychology, video coding
A triangulation system for game events, video, and psychophysiological data was developed to suit needs of an experimental psychology study, where we studied whether emotional reactions to congruent and incongruent emotional game stimuli within an intrinsically motivated task are the same as within traditional experimental picture-viewing paradigm.
- Nacke, L.E., Stellmach, S., Sasse, D., Niesenhaus, J., Dachselt, R. 2010. LAIF: A Logging and Interaction Framework for Gaze-Based Interfaces in Virtual Entertainment Environments. In Entertainment Computing. DOI: 10.1016/j.entcom.2010.09.004
Digital games; Eye tracking; Interactive techniques; Gameplay logging; Triangulation; Instrumentation.
We present a framework of programming libraries that enables rapid game development and gameplay analysis within an experimental research environment. The framework presented here is extensible for different kinds of logging (e.g., psychophysiological and in-game behavioral data) and facilitates studies using eye-tracking technology in digital entertainment environments. An experimental study using gaze-only interaction in a digital game is presented and highlights the framework’s capacity to create games and evaluate novel entertainment interfaces.
- Nacke, L. E., Stellmach, S. and Lindley, C. A. (2010). Electroencephalographic Assessment of Player Experience: A Pilot Study in Affective Ludology. To appear in special conference issue (Design for Engaging Experience and Social Interaction) of Simulation & Gaming: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Theory, Practice and Research. DOI: 10.1177/1046878110378140
Gameplay experience; user experience; game design; level design; psychophysiology; affect; EEG; emotion assessment; self-report measures; quantitative study; player experience; gaming; engagement; physiological signal processing; affective ludology.
In this paper, we present a psychophysiological pilot study which investigates the impact of level design on brainwave activity measured with EEG. Patterns of EEG spectral power show that the immersion level design elicits more activity in the theta band, which may support a relationship between virtual spatial navigation or exploration and theta activity. Our research shows that cognitive patterns emerge from different level designs.
- Nacke, L. E., Grimshaw, M. N., Lindley, C. A. 2010. More Than a Feeling: Measurement of Sonic User Experience and Psychophysiology in a First-Person Shooter Game. Interacting with Computers, vol. 22, no. 5. Article in Press. DOI: 10.1016/j.intcom.2010.04.005 (2009 impact factor: 1.698)
Psychophysiology; Sonic user experience (UX); Entertainment; Emotion; Affective gaming; Action video games; Audio.
In the empirical study reported here, participants played a fast-paced, immersive first-person shooter (FPS) game modification, in which sound (on/off) and music (on/off) were manipulated, while psychophysiological recordings of electrodermal activity (EDA) and facial muscle activity (EMG) were recorded in addition to a Game Experience Questionnaire (GEQ). Results indicate no main or interaction effects of sound or music on EMG and EDA. However, a significant main effect of sound on all GEQ dimensions (immersion, tension, competence, flow, negative affect, positive affect, and challenge) was found.We conclude subjective measures could advance our understanding of sonic UX in digital games, while affective tonic (i.e., long-term psychophysiological) measures of sonic UX in digital games did not yield statistically significant results.
- Nacke, L. E., Drachen, A. and Goebel, S. (2010). Methods for Evaluating Gameplay Experience in a Serious Gaming Context. International Journal of Computer Science in Sport (Special Edition). Volume 9, Edition 2.
Gameplay, Affect, Psychophysiology, User Experience, Serious Gaming.
This paper presents an approach to formalize gameplay experience evaluation methods applied during the process of player-game interaction and a roadmap for applying these mechanisms in the context of serious games. Based on related work of user experience and player experience models, we propose a three-layer framework of gameplay experience. We also discuss potential use of this framework within the field of game-based learning and serious gaming for sports and health.
- Nacke, L., & Lindley, C. (2009). Affective Ludology, Flow and Immersion in a First- Person Shooter: Measurement of Player Experience. Loading 3(5),
Game design, flow, immersion, gameplay experience, psychophysiology.
This paper discusses the area of “affective ludology” concerned with the affective measurement of player-game interaction. The experimental study reported here investigated different traits of gameplay experience in Half-Life 2 game level design modifications using subjective (i.e., questionnaires) and objective (i.e., psychophysiological) measures. A level designed for combat-oriented flow experience demonstrated significant high-arousal positive affect emotions. The paper is an extended version of the conference paper “Flow and Immersion in First-Person Shooters: Measuring the player’s gameplay experience.”
- Nacke, L. E., Nacke, A., Lindley, C. A. (2009) Brain Training for Silver Gamers: Effects of Age and Game Form on Effectiveness, Efficiency, Self-Assessment, and Gameplay Experience. CyberPsychology & Behavior. October 2009, 12(5): 493-499. DOI: 10.1089/cpb.2009.0013.
Psychology, Games, Elderly, Silver Gamer, Form effects, Usability.
This study uses a 2 × 2 mixed factorial design (age group: young and old × game form: paper and Nintendo DS) to investigate effects of age and game form on usability, self-assessment, and gameplay experience in a supervised field study. Effectiveness was evaluated in task completion time, efficiency as error rate, together with self-assessment measures (arousal, pleasure, dominance) and game experience (challenge, flow, competence, tension, positive and negative affect). Results indicate players, regardless of age, are more effective and efficient using pen-and-paper than using a Nintendo DS console. Logic problem-solving challenges within digital games may be associated with positive feelings for the elderly but with negative feelings for the young.
Peer-Reviewed Conference Papers
- Mirza-Babaei, P., Nacke, L.E., Gregory, J., Collins, N., Fitzpatrick, G. How Does It Play Better? Exploring User Testing and Biometric Storyboards in Games User Research. In Proceedings of CHI’13. ACM, 2013
- Marczak, R., Vught, J. v., Nacke, L. E. and Schott, G. Feedback-based gameplay metrics: measuring player experience via automatic visual analysis. In Proceedings of The 8th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment: Playing the System (Auckland, New Zealand, 2012). ACM, 2012.PDF
- Mirza-Babaei, P., Nacke, L., Fitzpatrick, G., White, G., McAllister, G., Collins, N. Biometric storyboards: visualising game user research data. In Proceedings of CHI EA ’12. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2315-2320. DOI=10.1145/2223656.2223795. 2012. Extended Abstract.
- Gerling, K., Livingston, I., Nacke, L.E., Mandryk, R.L. 2012. Full-Body Motion-Based Game Interaction for Older Adults. In Proceedings of CHI 2012, Austin, TX, USA.
- McEwan, G., Gutwin, C., Mandryk, R.L., Nacke, L.E. 2012. “I’m Just Here to Play Games:” Social Dynamics and Sociability in an Online Game Site. In Proceedings of CSCW 2012, Seattle, Washington, USA.
- Livingston, I., Nacke, L.E., Mandryk, R. 2011. Influencing Experience: The Effects of Reading Game Reviews on Player Experience. In Proceedings of ICEC 2011. Vancouver, BC. To appear.
- Nacke, L.E., Bateman, C., Mandryk, R. 2011. BrainHex: Preliminary Results from a Neurobiological Gamer Typology Survey. In Proceedings of ICEC 2011. Vancouver, BC. To appear.
- Flatla, D., Gutwin, C., Nacke, L.E., Bateman, S., Mandryk, R.L. 2011. Calibration Games: Making Calibration Tasks Enjoyable by Adding Motivating Game Elements. In Proceedings of UIST 2011, Santa Barbara, California. To appear.
- Bateman, C., Lowenhaupt, R., Nacke, L.E. 2011. Player Typology in Theory and Practice. In Proceedings of DiGRA 2011. Utrecht, The Netherlands.
- Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R. and Nacke, L. E. (2011): From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining »Gamification«. In Proceedings of Mindtrek 2011, Tampere: ACM Press.
- Livingston, I.J., Nacke, L.E., Mandryk, R.L. 2011. The Impact of Negative Game Reviews and User Comments on Player Experience. In Sandbox ’11: The 6th ACM SIGGRAPH conference on video games, Vancouver, Canada. To appear.
- Nacke, L.E., Kalyn, M., Lough, C., Mandryk, R.L. (2011). Biofeedback Game Design: Using Direct and Indirect Physiological Control to Enhance Game Interaction. In Proceedings of CHI 2011, Vancouver, BC, Canada. To appear.
In this paper, we propose a classification of direct and indirect physiological sensor input to augment traditional game control. We conducted a mixed-methods study. Results show a preference for direct physiological control in games. This has two major design implications: (1) Direct physiological sensors should be mapped intuitively to reflect an action in the virtual world; (2) Indirect physiological input is best used as a dramatic device in games to influence features altering the game world.
- Bateman, C., Nacke, L. E. 2010. The Neurobiology of Play. In Proceedings of Future Play 2010, Vancouver, BC. pp. 1-8. DOI: 10.1145/1920778.1920780.
This paper discusses the implications of existing research in neurobiology to the play of games (including, but not restricted to digital games), and connects neurobiological perspectives with models of play aiming to construct superior player satisfaction models built upon biological foundations.
- Nacke, L. E. 2010. Wiimote vs. Controller: Electroencephalographic Measurement of Affective Gameplay Interaction. In Proceedings of Future Play 2010, Vancouver, BC. pp. 159-166. DOI: 10.1145/1920778.1920801.
This paper reports a study on the influence of interaction modes (Playstation 2 game controller vs. Wii remote and Nunchuk) on subjective experience and brain activity measured with electroencephalography (EEG). Results indicated interaction fatigue (higher delta activity) resulting from physical interaction with a game using the Wiimote
- Stellmach, S., Nacke, L., Dachselt, R. (2010). 3D Attentional Maps – Aggregated Gaze Visualizations in Three-Dimensional Virtual Environments. (pp. 345-348)
Proceedings of the International Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2010). ACM, New York, NY. DOI: 10.1145/1743666.1743693In this paper, we propose three novel gaze visualizations for the application in three-dimensional virtual environments: projected, object-based, and surface-based attentional maps. These techniques provide an overview of how visual attention is distributed across a scene, among different models, and across a model’s surface.
- Drachen, A., Nacke, L.E., Yannakakis, G., Lee Pedersen, A. (2010). Correlation between heart rate, electrodermal activity and player experience in First-Person Shooter games. (pp. 49-54) ACM SIGGRAPH Video Game Symposium 2010, Los Angeles, CA. DOI: 10.1145/1836135.1836143
This paper reports a case study using heart rate (HR) and electrodermal activity (EDA) correlations with subjective gameplay experience in three major commercial first-person shooter games. Results indicate a significant correlation (p < 0.01) between psychophysiological arousal (i.e., HR, EDA) and self-reported gameplay experience.
- Stellmach, S., Nacke, L., & Dachselt, R. (2010). Advanced Gaze Visualizations for Three-dimensional Virtual Environments. (pp. 109-112) Eye Tracking Research & Applications (ETRA 2010). Austin, TX. ACM. DOI: 10.1145/1743666.1743693
In this paper, we propose a set of advanced gaze visualization techniques for supporting gaze behavior analysis in three-dimensional virtual environments. Similar to commonly used gaze visualizations for two-dimensional stimuli (e.g., images and websites), we contribute advanced 3D scan paths and 3D attentional maps.
- Stellmach, S., Nacke, L., Dachselt, R., Lindley, C.A. (2009) Trends and Techniques in Visual Gaze Analysis. In The 5th Conference on Communication by Gaze Interaction – COGAIN 2009: Gaze Interaction For Those Who Want It Most (Copenhagen, Denmark, May 2009).
Visualizing gaze data is an effective way for the quick interpretation of eye tracking results. This paper presents a study investigating benefits and limitations of visual gaze analysis among eye tracking professionals and researchers.
- Nacke, L., Stellmach, S., Sasse, D. and Lindley, C. A. (2009) Gameplay Experience in a Gaze Interaction Game. In The 5th Conference on Communication by Gaze Interaction – COGAIN 2009: Gaze Interaction For Those Who Want It Most (Copenhagen, Denmark, May 2009).
For this study, a gaze interaction Half-Life 2 game modification was created that allowed eye tracking control. The mod was deployed during an experiment at Dreamhack 2007, where participants had to play with gaze navigation and afterwards rate their gameplay experience. The results indicate a positive gameplay experience when playing with gaze interaction.
- Nacke, L. (2009) From Playability to a Hierarchical Game Usability Model. Conference on Future Play 2009 @ GDC Canada. Vancouver, BC, Canada.
This paper presents a brief review of current game usability models. This leads to the conception of a high-level game usability framework model that integrates current usability approaches in game industry and game research.
- Lindley, C. A., Nacke, L. & Sennersten, C. C. (2008) Dissecting Play – Investigating the Cognitive and Emotional Motivations and Affects of Computer Gameplay. In Proceedings of CGAMES 08, Wolverhampton, UK, 3-5 November 2008.
- Nacke, L., Lindley, C. A. (2008) Flow and immersion in first-person shooters: measuring the player’s gameplay experience. In Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Future Play: Research, Play, Share (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, November 03 – 05, 2008). Future Play ’08. ACM, New York, NY, 81-88, DOI: 10.1145/1496984.1496998.
This paper reports the results of an experimental psychophysiological study investigating different traits of gameplay experience using subjective and objective measures. Participants played three Half-Life 2 game modifications while being measured with electroencephalography, electrocardiography, electromyography, galvanic skin response and eye tracking equipment.
- Grimshaw, M., Lindley, C. A., & Nacke, L. (2008). Sound and Immersion in the First-Person Shooter: Mixed Measurement of the Player’s Sonic Experience. Audio Mostly Conference 2008, Piteå, Sweden. Proceedings (PDF).
This paper summarizes and reports on the results of a preliminary psychophysiological experiment to measure human arousal and valence in the context of sound and immersion in first-person shooter computer games.
- Nacke, L., Lindley, C., and Stellmach, S. (2008) Log Who’s Playing: Psychophysiological Game Analysis Made Easy through Event Logging. In Proceedings of the 2nd international Conference on Fun and Games (Eindhoven, The Netherlands, October 20 – 21, 2008). P. Markopoulos, B. Ruyter, W. IJsselsteijn, and D. Rowland, Eds. Lecture Notes In Computer Science, vol. 5294. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 150-157. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-88322-7_15, ACM.
This paper presents a solution to recording in-game events with the frequency and accuracy of psychophysiological recording systems, by sending out event byte codes through a parallel port to the psychophysiological signal acquisition hardware. Thus, psychophysiological data can immediately be correlated with in-game data.
- Nacke, L., & Lindley, C. (2008). Boredom, Immersion, Flow – A pilot study investigating player experience. In Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Gaming 2008: Design for engaging experience and social interaction. IADIS Press. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. July 25-27, 2008. (103-107). ISBN: 978-972-8924-64-5
This paper describes a pilot study measuring game experience with a set of game stimuli especially designed for different player experiences. Gameplay experience is measured using self-report questionnaires after each play session. Results of the questionnaires are then separately compared to design intentions and player evaluations.
- Lindley C. A., Nacke, L., and Sennersten C. (2007). What does it mean to understand gameplay? First Symposium on Ludic Engagement Designs for All. Aalborg University Esbjerg, Denmark.
This paper discusses understanding gameplay by considering basic epistemological questions about the nature of understanding. It is especially useful to consider gameplay from perspectives of cognitive science, semiotics, consciousness studies and aesthetics. Integrating these perspectives without losing their differences provides a comprehensive theoretical framework for play analysis.
- Yatim, M.; Nacke, L., Masuch, M. Improving Game Design by Understanding the Gender Differences: The Cognitive Approach. International Conference on Gender in Educational Games and Gender Sensitive Approaches to E-Learning 2006, Donau University Krems, Austria, 2006.
This paper discusses the gaming situation in development and play in terms of the effect it has on women. The cognitive reasoning of women and how their behaviour and culture is shaped in early childhood is analysed in terms of implications for digital game design catering especially to females.
- Masuch, M.; Nacke, L. Power and peril of teaching game programming – Mehdi, Quasim (Ed.); Gough, Norman (Ed.: Computer games: artificial intelligence, design and education (5th Game-on international conference Reading, UK, 8-10 November 2004). CGAIDE. Wolverhampton: Univ., 2004, pp. 347 – 351.
This paper reviews the teaching of computer games as an academic subject for students at university level. The benefits, challenges, and problems of teaching game design and game programming are investigated and discussed. We present an overview of experiences and a list of practical advice for lecturers of similar courses.
- Nacke, L.E. (2013). An Introduction to Physiological Player Metrics for Evaluating Games. Chapter 26 in M. Seif El-Nasr, A. Drachen, A. Canossa, (eds.) Game Analytics: Maximizing the Value of Player Data. Springer. pp. 585-619. ISBN 978-1-4471-4768-8. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-4769-5_26, Peer-Reviewed.
- Nacke, L.E. (2010). Broken Soft Drink Machines. In J. Jursa, S. Köver, J. Grünewald (Eds.) UX Storytellers: Connecting the dots. 450-463.
This book chapter presents my personal way into UX and HCI research embedded in an entertaining story, where I go on a quest to find a working soft drink machine while at a conference during a bank holiday.
- Nacke, L.E., Grimshaw, M. 2011. Player-game Interaction Through Affective Sound. In M. Grimshaw (Ed.) Game Sound Technology and Player Interaction: Concepts and Developments, ISBN 978-1616928285. Chapter 13. 264-285. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global Publishing. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61692-828-5.ch013 (peer reviewed)
In this book chapter, we give a concise overview of underlying theoretical principles of affect and emotion guided by the aesthetics of game content (especially sound) and the pleasure of gameplay interaction. We present different definitions of emotions and methodological strategies for measuring emotional responses to game sound.
Workshop, SIG and Panel Organization
- Mirza-Babaei, P., Zammitto, V., Niesenhaus, J., Sangin, M., Nacke, L.E. Games User Research: Practice, Methods, and Applications. In Proceedings of CHI EA’13. ACM, 2013.
- Christou, G., Law, E., Geerts, D., Nacke, L.E., Zaphiris, P. Designing and Evaluating Sociability in Online Video Games. In Proceedings of CHI EA’13. ACM, 2013.
- Deterding, S., Björk, S., Nacke, L.E., Dixon, D., Lawley, E. Designing Gamification: Creating Gameful and Playful Experiences. In Proceedings of CHI EA’13. ACM, 2013.
- Drachen, A., Nacke, L.E., Seif El-Nasr, M., Desurvire, H., Bernhaupt, R., Isbister, K., Calvi, L. 2011. FDG Player Experience and Game User Research Workshop. FDG 2012.
- Seif El-Nasr, M., Desurvire, H., Nacke, L., Drachen, A., Bernhaupt, R., Isbister, K., Calvi, L. 2011. CHI- GUR (Game User Research): Exploring Methodologies. CHI 2012, Austin, TX.
- Bonsignore, E., Hansen, D.L., Toups, Z.O., Nacke, L.E., Salter, A. Lutters, W. (2012). Mixed Reality Games. In Proc. of CSCW 2012. Bellevue, WA.
- Folmer, E., Kurniawan, S., Nacke, L. (2011). Video Game Accessibility: Extreme Interaction Design. The 6th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games Workshop. Bordeaux, France. ACM.
- Calvi, L., Nacke, L., Drachen, A. (2011). Evaluating Player Experience in Games. The 6th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games Workshop. Bordeaux, France. ACM.
- Lund, A., Perkins, A., Kurniawan, S., Nacke, L. (2011). Accessible Games SIG. In CHI 2011 Extended Abstracts, Vancouver, BC, Canada. To appear.
- Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Nacke, L.E., O’Hara, K., Sicart, M. (2011). Gamification: Using Game Design Elements in Non-Gaming Contexts. In CHI 2011 Extended Abstracts, Vancouver, BC, Canada. To appear. Workshop.
- Fairclough, S., Gilleade, K., Nacke, L.E., Mandryk, R.L. (2011). Brain and Body Interfaces: Designing for Meaningful Interaction. In CHI 2011 Extended Abstracts, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Workshop.
- Nacke, L. E., Niesenhaus,J., Engl, S., Canossa, A., Kuikkaniemi, K., Immich, T. (2010) Bringing Game Design and Affective Evaluation to User Research and User Experience. Entertainment Interfaces Workshop, Duisburg, Germany.
- Calvi, L., Gualeni, S., Nuijten, K., Nacke, L., Poels, K. (2010). Playability and player experience of casual games. International Conference on Fun and Games 2010 Workshop. Leuven, Belgium. ACM.
- Kuikkaniemi, K., Turpeinen, M., Ravaja, N., Chanel, G., Korhonen, H., Nacke, L. (2010). BioS-Play: Workshop on Multiuser and Social Biosignal Adaptive Games and Playful Applications. International Conference on Fun and Games 2010 Workshop. Leuven, Belgium. ACM.
- Girouard, A., Solovey, E.T., Mandryk, R., Tan, D., Nacke, L., Jacob, R.J.K. (2010) “Brain, Body and Bytes: Psychophysiological User Interaction.” In Proc. ACM CHI 2010 Extended Abstracts.
- Nacke, L., Drachen, A., Korhonen, H., Kuikkaniemi, K., Niesenhaus, J., van den Hoogen, W. Poels, K., IJsselsteijn, W., de Kort, Y. (2009) DiGRA Panel: Playability and Player Experience Research. September 1, 2009. DiGRA 2009: Breaking New Ground: Innovation in Games, Play, Practice and Theory, Brunel University, West London, UK.
- Nacke, L., Ambinder, M., Canossa, A., Drachen, A., Mandryk, R., Pinelle, D., Stach, T. (2009). Future Play Panel: “Game Metrics and Biometrics: The Future of Player Experience Research”. May 13, 2009. Conference on Future Play 2009.
Position and Workshop Papers
- Mirza-Babaei, P., Nacke, L.E. Biometric Storyboards: An Industry-Friendly Method for Evaluating Affect and User Experience in Games. Poster at GRAND Annual Conference 2012.
- Nacke, L.E., Hogue, A. (2012). Fitness and Competition in Mixed Reality Games. In Proceedings of the Mixed Reality Games Workshop at CSCW 2012.
- Nacke, L.E., Drachen, A. (2011). Towards a Framework of Player Experience Research. In: Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Evaluating Player Experience in Games (EPEX) at Foundations of Digital Games (FDG). To appear.
- Nacke, L.E. (2011). Directions in Physiological Game Evaluation and Interaction. In: Proceedings of CHI 2011 Workshop Brain and Body Interfaces: Designing for Meaningful Interaction.
- Nacke, L.E., Schild, J., Niesenhaus, J. (2010). Gameplay experience testing with playability and usability surveys – An experimental pilot study. In Playability and player experience: Proceedings of the Fun and Games 2010 Workshop, pp.31-45, NHTV Expertise Series 10.
- Livingston, I.J., Nacke, L.E., Mandryk, R.L. (2010). Critic-Proofing: Robust Validation Through Data-Mining. In Playability and player experience: Proceedings of the Fun and Games 2010 Workshop, pp.81-94, NHTV Expertise Series 10.
- Nacke, L.E., Mandryk, R.L. (2010). Affective Input and Game Design. Poster at GRAND Annual Conference 2010.
- Drachen, A., Nacke, L. E., Yannakakis, G., Pedersen, A. L. (2010). Psychophysiological Correlations with Gameplay Experience Dimensions. CHI Workshop Proceedings of Brain, Body, Bytes: Psychophysiological User Interaction.
- Nacke, L. (2008). A Methodology for Psychophysiological Player Logging. Position paper presented at the Nordic Game Research Network PhD Seminar: Game Research Methods, Aalborg, Denmark. June 18, 2008.
Industry Conference Papers
- Nacke, L. (2007). The Fun of Gaming: Measuring the Human Experience of Media Enjoyment published in the Quo Vadis Entwicklerkonferenz 2007 Reader.
- McCallum, S.; Makie, J. and Nacke, L., 2004. Creating a Computer Game Design Course. In Proceedings of the New Zealand Game Developers Conference. NZGDC.
Theses and Reports
- Nacke, Lennart E. (2009) Affective Ludology: Scientific Measurement of User Experience in Interactive Entertainment. Ph.D. Thesis. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
- Nacke, L. (2005). Facilitating the Education of Game Development. Department of Simulation and Graphics. Magdeburg, Otto-von-Guericke University. Diplom (Master’s Thesis): 153 p. Published by GameCareerGuide. Best thesis in Computervisualistik 2006.
- Nacke, L. (2005). Co-Development, Delivery and Structural Analysis of a Computer Game Course. University of Otago and Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg. Research Report (Bachelor Thesis): 112p.